My Genome*

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Genome* = (jnm) also ge·nom (-nm) n. The total genetic content contained in a haploid set of chromosomes in eukaryotes, in a single chromosome in bacteria, or in the DNA or RNA of viruses; An organism's genetic material

Genomics = the study of genomes

Ahnentafel* = A numbering system used to identify each individual in a family tree.  From the German ahnen meaning ancestor, and tafel, table or list; also known as the Sosa-Stradonitz System

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My Family

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The Genographic Project
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My Y Chromosome Haplogroup

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My Mitochondrial DNA

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My Nuclear DNA

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My Blood Type

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My Ahnentafel*

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My Pesigan Ancestry

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Rey Pesigan Reyes

My Family

My Family

My family.

There's Papa, Mama, my brother, me, my kid sister, and our pet dog.

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"Mitochondrial Eve," the common ancestor of all living humans, was born in Africa some 150,000 years ago.  All existing mtDNA diversity began with Eve and it remains greatest, and subsequently oldest, in Africa.

Y chromosome polymorphisms on the male line of descent also point to an African origin for all humans, but our male common ancestor, "Adam," lived only about 60,000 years ago.

MtDNA and the Y chromosome are independent parts of our genetic makeup and each tells a different tale of successive genetic mutations over the eons.  That is why their approximate coalescence points are different.  Yet while dates vary, both path points emphatically to a surprisingly recent African origin for all humans.

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Genographic Project, launched in April 2005, is a five-year genetic anthropology study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from over 100,000 people across five continents. It is being billed as the "moon shot of anthropology."

Project

Field researchers will collect DNA samples from indigenous populations as well as allow for public participation. For US$100 (in 2005) anyone in the world can order a self-testing kit from which a mouth scraping (saliva swab) is obtained, analyzed and the DNA information placed on an Internet accessible database. The process will be completely anonymous and will not test for genetic traits. Instead genetic markers on Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomes will be used to trace distant ancestry, and each participant is provided with their genetic history. As of February 2006, more than 115,000 people have participated.

The US$40m project is a privately-funded collaboration between the National Geographic Society, IBM and the Waitt Family Foundation. All proceeds from the sale of self-testing kits will be ploughed into a Legacy Fund to be spent on cultural preservation projects nominated by indigenous communities.

Prominent team members are:

bulletSpencer Wells, Team leader and moving force (National Geographic scientist)
bulletHimla Soodyall, principal project investigator, Sub-Saharan Africa
bulletAjay Royyuru, head of computational biology, IBM

 

The project has drawn comparison with the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP). The Genographic Project leaders have said that they will make the information from their project public, and that the project is undertaking widespread consultation with indigenous groups. A number of the key members of the Genographic Project were key members of the HGDP as well; the Advisory Board, for example, is chaired by Luigi Cavalli-Sforza, the geneticist who originally proposed the HGDP.

 

Official Site of the Genographic Project - http://www.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/

 

(texts copied from)

Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genographic_project (March 2007)

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My Y Chromosome Haplogroup

Haplogroup N (LLY22G)

 
Ancestral line: "Adam" → M168 → M89 → M9 → LLY22G

Haplogroup N is a lineage defined by a genetic marker LLY22G.  This haplogroup is the final  destination of a genetic journey that began 60,000 years ago with an ancient Y chromosome marker called M168.

The very widely dispersed M168 marker can be traced to a single individual - "Eurasian Adam."  This African man, who lived some 31,000 to 79,000 years ago, is the common ancestor of every non-African person living today.  His descendants migrated out of Africa and became the only lineage to survive away from humanity's home continent.

Population growth during the Upper Paleolithic era may have spurred the M168 lineage to seek new hunting ground for the plains animals crucial to their survival.  A period of moist and favorable climate had expanded the ranges of such animals at this time, so these nomadic peoples may have simply followed their food source.

Improved tools and rudimentary art appeared during this same epoch, suggesting significant mental and behavioral changes.  These shifts may have been spurred by a genetic mutation that gave "Eurasian Adam's" descendants a cognitive advantage over other contemporary, but now extinct, human lineages.

 Some 90 to 95 percent of all non-Africans are descendants of the second great human migration out of Africa, which is defined by the marker M89.

M89 first appeared 45,000 years ago in Northern African or the Middle East.  It arose on the original lineage (M168) of "Eurasian Adam," and defines a large inland migration of hunters who followed expanding grasslands and plentiful game to the Middle East.

Many people of this lineage remained in the Middles East, but others continued their movement and followed the grasslands through Iran to the vast steppes of Central Asia.  Herds of buffalo, antelope, wooly mammoths, and other game probably enticed them to explore new grasslands.

With much of Earth's water frozen in massive ice sheets, the era's vast steppes stretched from eastern France to Korea.  The grassland hunters of the M89 lineage traveled both east and west along this steppe "superhighway" and eventually peopled much of the continent.

A group of M89 descendants moved north from Middle East to Anatolia and the Balkans, trading familiar grasslands for forests and high country.  Though their numbers were likely small, genetic traces of their journey are still found today.

Some 40,000 years ago a man in Iran or southern Central Asia was born with a unique genetic marker known as M9, which marked a new lineage diverging from the M89 group.  His descendants spent the next 30,000 years populating much of the planet.

Most residents of the Northern Hemisphere trace their roots to this unique individual, and carry his defining marker.  Nearly all North Americans and East Asians have the M9 marker, as do most Europeans and many Indians.  This haplogroup defined by M9, K, is known as the Eurasian Clan.

This large lineage dispersed gradually.  Seasoned hunters followed the herds ever eastward, along a vast belt of Eurasian steppe, until the massive mountain ranges of south central Asia blocked their path.

The Hindu Kush, Tian Shan, and Himalaya, even more formidable during the era's ice age, divided eastward migration.  These migrations through the "Pamir Knot" region would subsequently become defined by additional genetic markers.

One such marker (LLY22G) probably originated in Siberia.  It defines haplogroup N, which is found in Russia, Siberia (east to the Altai Mountains), northern Finland, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe.  Today it effectively traces a migration of Uralic-speaking peoples during the last several thousand years.

This lineage has dispersed throughout the generations, and is now found in southern parts of Scandinavia as well as northeastern Europe.  Many Russians are members of haplogroup N, as are the reindeer-herding Saami people of northern Scandinavia and Russia.

Haplogroup N likely had its origins in Siberia, but its genetic footprint defines a vast migration of Uralic-speaking peoples within the last several thousand years.

Today, these populations are still found in Siberia as far east as the Altai Mountains.  But they occur in northern Finland, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe.  Many Russians and people of Russian descent share this lineage, as do the Saami people of northern Scandinavia and Russia.

(texts copied from)

The Genographic Project, Haplogroup N

Dr. Spencer Wells   

a research partnership of National Geographic and IBM

printout from the Genographic Project

 

Haplogroup N

Paternal Ancient Ancestry Haplogroup N is likely 10,000 years old and has three distinct subgroups: N1, N2 and N3. The most successful subgroup, N3, spans the Eurasian continent and appears independent of any ties by language. N3 is particularly frequent among many populations of northern Siberia and dominates the genetic landscape at almost 90% of the male Yakut population. Eskimo and Nenets populations also have this haplogroup at frequencies up to 50%.

Within Europe, we see N3 present in the Volga Basin amongst eastern European populations such as the Komis, Mordvin and Udmurts and also in the Finns, Saami and Estonians with frequencies up to 60%. Whereas linguistic affiliation often provides marked genetic boundaries, no such pattern can be found with Haplogroup N3 which, as well as being seen in the Finno-Ugric-speaking populations, can also be detected at 30-40% of the eastern Baltic-speaking Latvians and Lithuanians. This Haplogroup N3 is practically absent in southern and western regions of Europe. When found among individuals in British Isles (where it occurs very infrequently), Haplogroup N3 is usually considered to indicate Vikings influence to their gene pool.

(texts copied from)

DNA Ancestry, Haplogroup N

Ancestry.com (November 2007)

 

My Mitochondrial DNA

Haplogroup M*

Ancestral line: "Eve" → L1/L0 → L2 → L3 → M

Haplogroup M*  constitutes the other group that split off from L3, and gave rise to the first wave of modern humans to make a successful exodus from Africa.  These people likely left the continent across the Horn of Africa, where a narrow span of water between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden separates the East African coastline from the Arabian Peninsula at Bab-el-Mandeb.  The short ten miles would have been easily navigable for humans possessing early maritime technologies.  This crossing constituted the start of a long coastal migration eastward across the Middle East and southern Eurasia, eventually reaching all the way to Australia and Polynesia.

Haplogroup M* is considered an east Eurasian lineage, as it is found at high frequencies east of the Arabian Peninsula.  Members of this group are virtually absent in the Levant (a coastal region in what is now Lebanon), though they are present at higher frequencies in the south-Arabian Peninsula at around 15 percent.  Because its age is estimated at around 60,000 years old, members of this group were likely the first humans to leave Africa, and they likely did it heading east.  Haplogroup M is found in East Africa, though at much lower frequencies than its subgroup M1.  It gives the appearance of a more recent age in eastern Africa than in Asia which is likely the result of smaller populations in Africa, which would have reduced genetic diversity and would therefore appear more recent.

Haplogroup M* is prevalent among populations living in the southern parts of Pakistan and northwest India, where it constitutes around 30 to 50 percent of the mitochondrial gene pool, depending on the population.  Conversely, the M* haplogroup is absent or rarely found amongst people living west of the Indus Valley, and is found at low frequencies in the Central Asian populations, around 10 to 15 percent.  The wide distribution and greater genetic diversity east of Indus Valley indicated that these haplogroup M* -bearing individuals are the legacy of the first inhabitants of southwestern Asia.  These people underwent important expansions during the Paleolithic, and the fact that some East Asian haplogroup M* lineages match those found in Central Asia indicates much more recent (i.e., not founder) mixture into the area from the east.

Haplogroup M*  has several sub-branches that exhibit some geographic specificity.  Subgroups M1 is found at high frequency in East Africa, at around 20 percent in many populations.  Because haplogroup M* itself is almost entirely absent from the region, M1 individuals likely represent migrations back into the continent from the Arabian Peninsula after people had left Africa.  M2-M6 are characteristic Indian sub-groups.  Haplogroup M7 is distributed across the southern part of East Asia, and two of its own daughter groups, M7a and M7b2, are representative of Japanese and Korean populations, respectively.  M7 individuals reach frequency in southern China and Japan of around 15 percent, and are found at lower frequencies in Mongolia.  The old age of this branch indicates a pre-Jomon contribution to the mitochondrial gene pool in those areas.

 

(texts copied from)

The Genographic Project, Haplogroup M*

Dr. Spencer Wells   

a research partnership of National Geographic and IBM

printout from the Genographic Project

 

Haplogroup M*

Maternal Ancient Ancestry Haplogroup M originated somewhere between East Africa and the Persian Gulf some 65,000 years ago from Haplogroup L3. Haplogroup M then rapidly migrated along the southern coast of Asia, reaching Sahul (Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania) by approximately 60,000 years ago. Twenty thousand years later, roughly 45,000 years ago, when the climate and technology enabled exploration, this haplogroup expanded into the heartland of Asia. Today Haplogroup M is found in eastern Eurasia and makes up 60% of the mtDNA haplogroups found in India, but is virtually absent in Europe. Many other haplogroups, such as C, D, G, Q, Z, and E are descendants of Haplogroup M.

(texts copied from)

DNA Ancestry, Haplogroup M*

Ancestry.com (November 2007)

 

My Nuclear DNA

- Research in progress -

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My Blood Type

Blood Type B-positive secretor

Blood Type B developed sometime between 10,000 and 15,000 B.C., in the area of the Himalayan highlands - now part of present-day Pakistan and India.

Pushed from the hot, lush savannahs of Eastern Africa to the cold, unyielding highlands of the Himalayas, Blood Type B may have initially mutated in response to climactic changes.  It first appeared in India or the Ural region of Asia among a mix of Caucasian and Mongolian tribes.  This new blood type was soon characteristic of the great tribes of steppe dwellers, who by this time dominated the Eurasian plains

As the Mongolians swept through Asia, the gene for Type B blood was firmly entrenched.  The Mongolians spread northward, pursuing a culture development upon herding and domesticating animals - as their diet of meat and cultured dairy products reflected.

Two distinct Type Bs sprang up as the pastoral nomads pushed into Asia: an agrarian, comparatively sedentary group in the south and the east; and a nomadic, warlike society conquering the north and the west.  The nomads were expert horsemen who penetrated far into eastern Europe, and the gene for Type B blood is still in strong evidence in many of the eastern European populations.  In the meantime, an entire agriculturally based culture had spread throughout China and southeast Asia.  Because of the nature of the land they chose to till, and climates unique to their areas, these peoples created and employed sophisticated irrigation and cultivation techniques that displayed an awesome blend of creativity, intelligence, and engineering.

The schism between the warlike tribes to the north and the peaceful farmers was deep, and its remnants exist to this day in southern Asian cuisine, which uses little if any dairy foods.  To the Asian mind, dairy products are food of the barbarian, which is unfortunate because the diet they have adopted does not suit Type Bs as well.

Of all the ABO types, Type B shows the most clearly defined geographic distribution.  Stretching as a great belt across the Eurasian plains and down to the Indian subcontinent, Type B is found in increased numbers from Japan, Mongolia, China, and India up to the Ural mountains.  From there westward, the percentages fall until a low is reached at the western tip of Europe.

The small numbers of Type B in Old and Western Europeans represents western migratory by Asian nomadic peoples.  This is best scene in the easternmost western Europeans, the Germans and Austrians, who have an unexpectedly high incidence of Type B blood compared to their western neighbors.  The highest occurrence of Type B in Germans occurs in the area around the upper and middle Elbe River, which had been nominally held as the dividing line between civilization and barbarism in ancient times.

Modern subcontinental Indians, a Caucasian people, have some of the highest frequencies of Type B blood in the world.  The northern Chinese and Koreans have very high rates of Type B blood and very low rates of type A.

The blood type characteristic of the various Jewish populations have long been of interest to anthropologists.  As a general rule, regardless of their nationality or race, there is a trend toward higher-than-average rates of Type B blood.  The Ashkenazim and Sephardim, the two major Jewish sects, share strong levels of Type B blood, and appear to have very few differences.  The pre-Diaspora Babylonian Jews differ considerably from the primarily Type O Arabic population of Iraq (the location of the biblical Babylon) in that they are primarily Type B, with some frequency of Type. A.

(texts copied from)

Eat Right 4 Your Type

Dr. Peter J. D'Adamo with Catherine Whitney   

G.P Putnam's Sons, publisher © 1996

pages 10-12

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Ahnentafel of Ryan Pesigan Reyes

The latest .PDF (Portable Document Format) version is used.  Upgrade your 

Ahnentafel of Ryan Pesigan Reyes

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Rey Pesigan Reyes

This web site is dedicated to my brother, Rey, who we all miss deeply.

 Rey

July 26, 1973 - May 26, 1998

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Copyright ©1997 by Ryan Pesigan Reyes rize081476@yahoo.com
Last revised: May 07, 2008.